ANCIENT ASTRONAUTS Crash Land During The DINOSAUR ERA of Earth's Distant Past!
(1 July 2008)
WORLDWIDE BOMBSHELL EXCLUSIVE ... YOU READ IT HERE FIRST! ANONYMOUS
provides details on one of the MOST HIGHLY CLASSIFIED PROJECTS OF ALL
TIME: "Operation XXXXX XXXXX": The RECOVERY OF AN ALIEN SPACECRAFT WHICH
CRASH LANDED ON EARTH DURING THE DINOSAUR ERA ... SHOCKING ...
POSITIVELY AMAZING ... BEYOND ALL DISCLOSURE EXPECTATIONS ... LIKE A
FIERY BOLT OF AN INCOMING KILLER ASTEROID FROM OUT-OF-THE-BLUE! ...
U-N-B-E-L-I-E-V-A-B-L-E ... BUT 100% TRUE ... A MIND-NUMBING, RIVETING,
"Operation XXXXX XXXXX": A highly classified, sensitive operation with
far-reaching national security implications that took place in 1968. A
XXXXX archaeological team uncovered a large metallic object in a remote
area of southern XXXXX which is a close NATO ally of ours. The object
was believed to be an ALIEN SPACECRAFT that had crashed approximately
200 million years ago [200 MYA] according to the archaeological team.
The site subsequently was examined by a USAF Recovery Team, which then
put the age of the ALIEN CRAFT at approximately 150 million years ago
[150 MYA]. I don't think anyone can give an actual age of the site, but
it was somewhere between 150 and 200 MYA, based on the location of where
it was found.
Our scientists used the ABSOLUTE DATING METHOD employing decaying
radioactive isotopes. Sedimentary rock formations and the fact that the
object was EMBEDDED INTO THE ROCK were used to estimate the age of the
The ALIEN CRAFT itself was 45 feet in diameter. The craft was
transported to the State of XXXXX and then to the giant XXXXX lab
complex in XXXXX and opened. The ALIEN CRAFT contained two (2) highly
decomposed ALIEN BODIES and DECAYED ANIMALS, which were apparently
abducted by these ALIEN BEINGS. The animals were small DINOSAURS on
board the ALIEN CRAFT.
The craft was stored at XXXXX and years of intense research were
conducted. The last time I checked, the research team ruled OUT the
craft being of Eben origin. However, no one could tell where it came
from. The ALIEN BODIES were far too decomposed to be thoroughly
examined. They were about 5 feet tall and had very large, bulbous heads.
To the best of my knowledge, "Operation XXXXX XXXXX" is still an ongoing
project. I personally worked on the operation in the early '70s.
The instruments from the craft were interesting because they were made
of small crystal-like devices, wired together with a form of very fine
wire. The ALIEN PROPULSION SYSTEM contained a large chamber with what we
called "Rocks" (obviously some form of energy) in the chamber. Large
vents placed around the chamber vented some sort of power, radiation or
some form of tremendous energy generated through the vents and into the
propulsion chamber which enabled interstellar space travel.
Examination of the rocks found zinc, and several unknown materials and
alloys which we still cannot identify to this day. The "rocks" obviously
lost all of their energy over the years. They were NOT radioactive nor
did they contain any special properties. We could never power up the
ALIEN CRAFT in the nearly 40 years we've had possession of it.
We could NOT locate the actual power system and therefore could never
operate any of the equipment contained within the craft. However, we did
find a "Star Chart." The chart was created from outside of the Earth on
the ALIEN HOME WORLD. To this day, we have been UNable to read and
decipher the ALIEN STAR CHART. The star chart was of a deep area of
space, but our scientists haven't been able to find that specific area
Your analogy of our work on "Operation XXXXX XXXXX" and that of
transporting an SR-71 Blackbird back to the year 1200 AD was a good one:
If we returned 300 years later to the year 1500 AD, little, if anything,
could have been learned by our ancestors as to how the Blackbird worked.
In much the same way, the amazing, almost majic-like ALIEN TECHNOLOGY on
this craft has similarly stumped us; while some progress HAS been made
on it since 1968, it's been MINIMAL (partially due to the poor, degraded
condition of the ALIEN CRAFT).
Because this is an ongoing USG project, I ask that you place "X's" over
the critical names and locations [sent in a subsequent e-mail] though
you have the correct information. As a brief aside, you may share the
blacked out information with Dr XXXXX X XXXXX whose work on past
classified USG projects bestows a certain professional courtesy upon him
in that he deserves to know the particulars.
Victor, I agree with you that the existence of ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS who
had already achieved space traveling capabilities zipping around the
Milky Way Galaxy (and perhaps others) truly BOGGLES THE MIND. As you
wrote me, the Ebens were perhaps still in their "galactic diapers" when
these ALIEN BEINGS were already visiting other worlds ~150-200 MYA and
Homo Sapiens did not even exist!
One can only wonder and speculate where a civilization -- that had
already achieved interstellar space travel -- would be at TODAY
technologically from 150-200 MYA! How many star systems have they
visited by now? How many other alien civilizations have they made
successful contact and interacted with, and perhaps carry on some sort
of trade with? How many solar systems have they visited and mapped out
in our Milky Way Galaxy and perhaps those of OTHER galaxies?
One also has to consider the POSSIBILITY that rather than this crash
having occurred in OUR timeline of 150-200 MYA, these ALIEN BEINGS
traveled to Earth from the FUTURE to our distant PAST -- when DINOSAURS
ruled -- as part of a research mission ... THAT also BOGGLES the mind!
More to come....
SUPPLEMENTARY BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON "Operation XXXXX XXXXX":
MYA = Millions of Years Ago
YA = Years Ago
The ENORMOUS GEOLOGIC TIME SCALES:
+ PRECAMBRIAN TIME = 4,600,000,000 - 542 MYA [Also known as the
‡ HADEAN EON = 4,600,000,000 - 3,800,000,000 years ago
‡ ARCHEAN EON = 3,800,000,000 - 2,500,000,000
‡ PROTEROZOIC EON = 2,500,000,000 - 542 MYA
‡ PHANEROZOIC EON = 542,000,000 years ago (542 MYA] to the present
day, 2008 AD
† PALEOZOIC ERA = 542 - 251 MYA
† MESOZOIC ERA = 251 - 65.5 MYA
º TRIASSIC PERIOD = 251 - 199 MYA
º JURASSIC PERIOD = 199 -145 MYA
º CRETACEOUS PERIOD = 145 - 65.5 MYA
And within those PERIODS, geologists have STAGES:
* Hettangian stage = 208 MYA - 203.5 MYA
* Sinemurian stage = 203.5 MYA - 194.5 MYA
* Pliensbachian stage = 194.5 MYA - 187 MYA
* Toarcian stage = 187 MYA - 178 MYA
* Aalenian stage = 178 MYA - 173.5 MYA
* Bajocian stage = 173.5 MYA - 166.1 MYA
* Bathonian stage = 166.1 MYA - 161.3 MYA
* Callovian stage = 161.3 MYA - 157.1 MYA
* Oxfordian stage = 157.1 MYA - 154.7 MYA
* Kimmeridgian stage = 154.7 MYA - 152.1 MYA
* Tithonian stage = 152.1 MYA - 145.6 MYA
* Berriasian stage = 145.6 MYA - 140.7 MYA
* Valanginian stage = 140.7 MYA - 135 MYA
* Hauterivian stage = 135 MYA - 131.8 MYA
* Barremian stage = 131.8 MYA - 124.5 MYA
* Aptian stage = 124.5 MYA - 112 MYA
* Albian stage = 112 MYA - 97 MYA
* Cenomanian stage = 97 MYA - 90.4 MYA
* Turonian stage = 90.4 MYA - 88.5 MYA
* Coniacian stage = 88.5 MYA - 86.6 MYA
* Santonia stage = 86.6 MYA - 83 MYA
* Campanian stage = 83 MYA - 74 MYA
* Maastrichtian stage = 74 MYA - 65.5 MYA
† CENOZOIC ERA = 65.5 MYA - present day, 2008 AD
° TERTIARY PERIOD = 65.5 - 1.8 MYA
º NEOGENE PERIOD = 23 MYA - to the present day, 2008 AD [some list]
° QUATERNARY PERIOD = 1.8 MYA - present day, 2008
* HOLOCENE EPOCH = 11,800 years ago - to the present day, 2008 AD
To better understand the IMMENSE BLOCKS OF GEOLOGIC TIME we're
discussing here, these measures of time are called: eras, periods,
stages, epochs, ages and time. Planet Earth's origin is generally put at
4.6 BILLION YEARS ago which is the age of the oldest meteorites found.
To better appreciate the vastness of geologic time, let's think of those
4.6 billion years as represented by A SINGLE YEAR.
– The oldest fossil records go back only about 40 days out of that
– Humans' presence on the planet is only about two (2) hours;
– Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) presence on the planet is only
about five (5) MINUTES!
Using the 1-year model, it makes the notion of evolution possible,
probable and comprehensible.
One of the major divisions in the history of life occurs at the
beginning of the CAMBRIAN PERIOD [542 - 488 MYA which falls under the
PALEOZOIC ERA] when most of the main groups of animals appeared for the first
time in the vast geologic record. The seas experience an explosion of
invertebrate animal life, including thousands of species of trilobites;
there is NO life on land yet.
All of this occurs after massive collisions between Earth's plates
create a supercontinent in the southern hemisphere known as
GONDWANALAND. In the northern hemisphere was LAURASIA, both of which
were west of the TETHYS SEA. Both of these land masses came from a
single supercontinent called PANGEA that scientists believe broke apart
~170 MYA to form the current continents that we have today.
[ REFERENCE: http://serpo.org/release30j.php ]
IMPORTANT NOTE: More than 88 percent of Earth's history is PRECAMBRIAN!
Of the remaining time -- when Earth has been home to animal life as we
know it -- the part that includes HUMANS and their ancestors is less
than ONE (1) PERCENT!
NOTE: There are several VARIANTS of the geological time scale used in
different fields such as basic paleontology, mainstream geology,
geological surveying and prospecting for fossil fuels.
The major divisions of geological time are termed EONS (beginning of
time) and then ERAS. In turn, each of these great eras is divided into
spans called PERIODS. These are then broken down into STAGES within
For the next-to-the-last -- the PALEOGENE PERIOD -- and the current
NEOGENE PERIOD, time spans are subdivided into shorter time spans known
The ALIEN SPACECRAFT that crashed on Earth was roughly during the
JURASSIC PERIOD of 199 - 145 MYA; this is what was present on Earth
during that period:
• North American continent drifts westward opening the Gulf of Mexico;
a rift forms between South America and Africa. A warm, moist climate
contributes to the flourishing of coral reefs and to temperate and
• It marks the appearance of the first angiosperms (flowering plants),
pterosaurs (winged reptiles), the earliest known bird (Archaeopteryx),
and huge dinosaurs such as the carnivorous Allosaurus and herbivorous
The PRIMARY LIFE FORMS DURING THE JURASSIC PERIOD:
Placodonts, primitive archosaurs, chordates, brachiopods, echinoderms,
hemichordates, sponges, jellyfish, corals, flatworms, mollusks,
annelids, arthropods, Ichthyosaurs, Rhamphorhynchoids, Stegosaurs,
Pleisiosaurs, Pterodactyloids, Ankylosaurs, Ornithopods, horned
dinosaurs, Sauropods and Teropods.
DINOSAURS: They existed on Earth from 225 - 65 MYA during the three (3)
periods of the MESOZOIC ERA: The TRIASSIC, the JURASSIC and the
CRETACEOUS PERIODS. Dinosaurs evolved from land-dwelling reptiles called
THECODONTS. Scientists have named approximately 700 -1,000 species of
[ http://serpo.org/release30f.php / http://serpo.org/release30g.php ]
– SIZE DOES MATTER! –
LARGEST MEAT-EATING DINOSAUR: Spinosaurus which lived about 145 MYA;
SMALLEST DINOSAUR: Compsogathus longipes that was a chicken-sized
dinosaur measuring only 3 feet and weighing in at just 8 lbs, liked
lizard lunches, and lived about 145 MYA;
HEAVIEST DINOSAUR: Brachiosaurus weighed as much as 70 - 90 TONS, was as
tall as a 4-story building, and lived about 150 MYA;
FASTEST DINOSAUR: Struthiomimus, stood 7 feet tall, was 10-13 feet long
and could run at speeds of up to 31 mph;
LONGEST DINOSAUR: Seismosaurus, the "earthquake lizard" and largest of
the sauropods, was a long-necked plant eater, reached lengths of ~98-130
feet (30-39 meters) and lived about 150 MYA.
DINOSAUR WITH THE MOST TEETH: Anatotitan, a duck-billed dinosaur, had
about 1,000 tiny, leaf-shaped teeth arranged in rows of 200-250 on each
side of its upper and lower jaws, all at the back of its mouth.
DINOSAURS ARE CLASSIFIED IN 2 GROUPS:
– ORNITHISCHIA or bird-hipped dinosaurs, had pelvic bones arranged
like those of a bird hip, within the pubic bone that was bent backward.
They were plant eaters with hoof-like claws.
– SAURISCHIA or lizard-hipped dinosaurs is the second group. Their
pelvic bones were arranged like those of a lizard hip, with the pubic
bone pointing forward. There were two (2) main subgroups:
° The THEROPODA were fast, agile hunters; they included Tyrannosaurus
rex, Velociraptor, Allosaurus and the ancestors of modern birds.
° The SAUROPODOMORPHA were plant eaters with massive bodies, long
tails with front legs smaller than their backlegs. Brachiosaurus was a
DINOSAURIA: The ruling reptiles are characterized by:
* The number of bones in the skull;
* A ball-like head of the thigh bone;
* Three (3) or more vertebrae fixed to the hip bones;
* Three (3) or fewer finger bones in the fourth finger;
* A hole rather than a socket in the hip for the leg bone;
* A strong joint between the foot bones and the bones of the hind leg;
* The presence of a flange on the upper arm bone that held powerful
DINOSAURS became extinct around 65 MYA during a mass extinction known as
the CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY Mass Extinction Event or K/T BOUNDARY EVENT. It
is widely believed that the event resulted from the collision of an
asteroid with Earth, at a point on the northwest coastline of the
Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico called the Chicxulub crater (named for a
local village). [ http://serpo.org/release30b.php ]
This crater -- measuring 106-112 miles (170 kilometers) across -- formed
and shot billions of tons of matter into the atmosphere which blotted
out the Sun and caused global temperatures to plummet thereby
effectively ending the lengthy reign of the dinosaurs.
[ http://serpo.org/release30c.php / http://serpo.org/release30h.php ]
The evidence is based mainly on the fact that rocks laid down during
this period over a large area contain more than the expected amount of
IRIDIUM -- an element comparatively rare on Earth, but characteristic of
METEORITES and ASTEROIDS.
VICTIMS and SURVIVORS OF THE K/T BOUNDARY EVENT:
VICTIMS: [ REFERENCE: http://serpo.org/release30i.php ]
SURVIVORS of the K/T BOUNDARY:
- Lizards and snakes
- Turtles and tortoises
STRANGE BUT TRUE:
People have produced some weird, fantastic and wonderful theories to
explain WHY the dinosaurs disappeared. Some suggest they died from too
many erupting volcanoes poisoning the atmosphere, died of boredom,
"drowned" in their own droppings, committed suicide, or were even hunted
by SPACE ALIENS! [ http://serpo.org/release30d.php ]
PALEONTOLOGY is the science of prehistoric life, generally defined as
organisms that lived more than 10,000 years ago, prior to the end of the
most recent ice age. The science is based on the nature and distribution
of fossils, the remains or traces of organisms. In addition to
satisfying our curiosity about organisms that lived long ago,
paleontology provides evidence to support the concepts of evolution and
continental drift. It also helps to support the theory that impacts of
asteroids and comets have been instrumental in wiping out significant
portions of Earth's life at intervals in our planet's history -- the
so-called mass extinctions.
PALEOLITHIC PERIOD: The cultural period of the Stone Age that began
about 2.5 - 2 MYA is marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped
stone. The PALEOLITHIC PERIOD ended ~10,000 YA; it is also called "The
OLD STONE AGE."
The LOWER PALEOLITHIC DIVISION is by far the longest division of this
period, lasting until ~200,000 YA and is characterized by hammerstones
and simple core tools such as hand axes and cleavers.
The MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC DIVISION is generally dated to ~40,000 YA and is
associated with archaic HOME SAPIENS, primarily the Neanderthals and
their Mousterian tool culture.
The UPPER PALEOLITHIC DIVISION dates to ~10,000 YA in Europe and the
Middle East and is associated with HOMO SAPIENS. Various distinctive
local tool cultures flourished during this relatively brief period,
producing a great variety of skillfully flaked tools as well as tools
made of bone, antler wood and other material.
PALEOCLIMATOLOGY is the scientific study of climate conditions, along
with their causes and effects, in the geologic past. These conditions
are reconstructed on the basis of evidence found in the geologic record,
especially in the form of glacial deposits, FOSSILS, SEDIMENTS, and rock
and ice cores. Because much of the geologic record studied in
paleoclimatology predates HUMANS, this research is very valuable for
weighing the relative influence of human and natural causes on GLOBAL
PALEOECOLOGY is the branch of ECOLOGY that deals with the interaction
between organisms and their environment.
PALEOMAGNETISM is the fixed orientation of a rock's magnetic minerals as
originally aligned at the time of the rock's formation.
FOSSILS: The remains or imprint of an organism from a previous geologic
time. More than 1 million species of FOSSIL organisms have been
identified. These range from microscopic bacteria to giant dinosaurs and
tree ferns. Evidence of truly ancient fossils -- much of it
controversial -- suggests that Earth may have had simple bacteria-like
life as long as 3.5 billion years ago.
FOSSIL TYPES: THE 4 BASIC TYPES
BODY FOSSILS are either actual remains of organisms or remains in which
original chemicals have been replaced by other chemicals, typically
silicon dioxide and other minerals from water seeping through the buried
INDEX FOSSILS are the fossil remains of an organism that lived in a
particular geologic age and is used to identify or date the rock or ROCK
LAYER in which it is found.
MICROFOSSIL is a microscopic fossil as that of a pollen grain or
unicellular organism. MICROPALEONTOLOGY is the branch of paleontology
that deals with MICROFOSSILS.
TRACE FOSSILS are marks made by the activities of ancient organisms,
such as footprints, burrows, leaf imprints, chemical traces and tooth
marks on bones. They reveal much about anatomy as well as the habits and
habitats of their creators.
DATING FOSSILS EMPLOYS 2 METHODS
RELATIVE DATING METHOD: Relative dating methods compare the ages of
various fossils, indicating their relative ages, but NOT their actual
ages. For example, STRATIGRAPHY is based on the fact that in an
undisturbed sequence of rock layers, fossils in lower layers are older
than those in upper layers.
ABSOLUTE DATING METHOD: Absolute dating methods provide SPECIFIC AGES
for fossils. These methods are based on the fact that radioactive
isotopes decay at a specific rate, called a half-life. Another
technique, electron spin resonance dating, uses the changes that
background radiation indirectly makes, at a predictable rate, in the
magnetic field of crystalline minerals. It is used to date calcium
carbonate in shells, teeth and coral.
THE TIMELINE OF ANCIENT MAN
HOMO HABILIS appeared 2.3 - 2.5 MYA in the Olduvai Gorge, East Africa.
The earliest HOMO SAPIENS appeared POSSIBLY 260,000 years ago in Africa
and then definitely 160,000 - 150,000 years ago. HOMO SAPIENS co-exist
with HOMO ERECTUS in Asia and NEANDERTHALS in Europe and the Middle
HOMO HABILIS provided evidence of the deliberate USE OF FIRE 1.8 MYA -
HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS [Neanderthal Man] appeared 350,000 - 250,000 YA,
and emerged in ice-age Europe and western Asia for the next 220,000
years before dying off 24,000 YA.
HOMO SAPIENS population spread is halted possibly due to the
catastrophic eruption of Toba, Sumatra ~71,000 years ago; global
temperatures are lowered for a millennium. The immense volcanic eruption
left a 1,000 sq mile Toba caldera behind. A giant depression formed
after the collapse of the volcano's cone. Today, it holds a large body
of water with an island in the caldera which is a resurgent dome where
magma is active in a chamber directly below the surface.
[ http://serpo.org/release30k.php ]
"NUCLEAR ADAM" was the most recent known common ancestor of today's man
having come into existence sometime between 90,000 - 60,000 years ago.
PANGEA: A large supercontinent that extended from pole to pole on ONE
SIDE of the earth during the late PALEOZOIC and early MESOZOIC ERAS; it
eventually split forming LAURASIA and GONDWANALAND.
[ REFERENCE: http://serpo.org/release30j.php ]
SEDIMENTARY ROCK: Rock formed by the buildup of material at the bottoms
of bodies of water.
METAMORPHIC: The name given to SEDIMENTARY ROCKS or minerals that have
recrystallized under the influence of tremendous heat and great pressure
since their original deposition.
See a PREHISTORIC TIME LINE [above]:
MASS EXTINCTIONS IN EARTH's DISTANT PAST ARE DUE TO SEA LEVEL CHANGES,
STUDY SAYS, BUT WHAT CAUSED THOSE CHANGES IN SEA LEVEL? / SOME
SCIENTISTS CLAIM THAT THE 6th MASS EXTINCTION LEVEL EVENT IS ALREADY
UNDERWAY DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING! –
By John Roach, National Geographic News, Tuesday, June 17, 2008
The rise and fall of the seas may have a more lethal toll on Earth's
life than ASTEROIDS and supervolcanoes, according to a new study. Over
the past 540 million years, every increase in the rate of extinctions --
including the five so-called mass extinctions -- has been linked to
environmental changes wrought by changing sea levels, the study says.
The research may be especially relevant today, as what some scientists
are calling THE SIXTH MASS EXTINCTION MAY ALREADY BE UNDERWAY, perhaps due to
global warming. Since the beginning of life on Earth 3.5 billion years ago,
scientists estimate there have been as many as 23 MAJOR EXTINCTION
EVENTS. During the past 540 million years, there have been 5 MAJOR MASS
EXTINCTIONS, primarily of marine plants and animals. Each time, between
75 and 95 percent of ALL SPECIES VANISHED.
The idea that sea level changes are associated with these
mass-extinction events has been around for almost 60 years, Peters noted, but
until now scientists have been unable to quantify the environmental consequences
of SEA LEVEL CHANGE. The seas rise and fall as the climate shifts and as
the Earth's tectonic plates move.
As a result, the marine animals in them sometimes disappear when their
shallow-water environments vanish or are dramatically altered. He found
that all five mass extinction events, and many of the smaller events in
the fossil record, are associated with changes in sea level and
Wolfgang Kiessling, a paleontologist at Humboldt University in Berlin,
Germany, is an expert on mass-extinction events. While he doubts that
changing sea levels alone drive mass die-offs, he said the study is
important because it shows that habitat size is relevant to species
"The bigger habitat you have, the more species you can sustain -- and
when habitat shrinks, you get increased risk of extinction," said
Kiessling, who was not involved in the study. However, he added, changes
in sea level alone are insufficient to explain the magnitude of
mass-extinction events such as the one 65 million years ago, which wiped
out the DINOSAURS. "There's got to be more," he said, "something like
supervolcanoes [and/or] ASTEROID IMPACTS."
WHAT CAUSES LARGE-SCALE ANIMAL DIE-OFFS? / ABOUT 90% OF ALL LIFE FORMS
THAT HAVE EVER LIVED ON EARTH ARE NOW EXTINCT! / THE SPECIFIC CAUSES FOR
SUCH EXTINCTION LEVEL EVENTS ARE MYSTERIES, BUT LARGE IMPACTING
ASTEROIDS ARE PRIME SUSPECTS! –
National Geographic, Friday, June 20, 2008
More than 90 percent of all organisms that have ever lived on Earth are
extinct. As new species evolve to fit ever changing ecological niches,
older species fade away. But the rate of extinction is far from
constant. At least a handful of times in the last 500 million years, 50
to more than 90 percent of all species on Earth have disappeared in a
geological blink of the eye.
DINOSAURS appeared after one of the biggest mass extinction events on
Earth, the Permian-Triassic extinction about 250 million years ago. The
most studied mass extinction, between the Cretaceous and Paleogene
periods about 65.5 million years ago, killed off the DINOSAURS and made
room for mammals to rapidly diversify and evolve.
The CAUSES of these mass extinction events are UNSOLVED MYSTERIES,
though volcanic eruptions and the impacts of LARGE ASTEROIDS or comets
are PRIME SUSPECTS in many of the cases. Both would eject tons of debris
into the atmosphere, darkening the skies for at least months on end.
Starved of sunlight, plants and plant-eating creatures would quickly
die. Space rocks and volcanoes could also unleash toxic and
heat-trapping gases that -- once the dust settled -- enable runaway
An EXTRATERRESTRIAL IMPACT is most closely linked to the CRETACEOUS
EXTINCTION EVENT. A huge crater off Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula is
dated to about 65.5 million years ago, coinciding with the extinction.
Global warming fueled by volcanic eruptions at the Deccan Flats in India
may also have aggravated the event. Whatever the cause, DINOSAURS, as
well as about half of all species on the planet, went extinct.
Massive floods of lava erupting from the central Atlantic magmatic
province about 200 million years ago may explain the Triassic-Jurassic
extinction. About 20 percent of all marine families went extinct, as
well as most mammal-like creatures, many large amphibians, and all
LARGEST EVER DIE-OFF
The Permian-Triassic extinction event about 250 million years ago was
the deadliest: More than 90 percent of all species perished. Many
scientists believe an ASTEROID or COMET triggered the massive die-off,
but, again, NO crater has been found. Another strong contender is flood
volcanism from the Siberian Traps, a large igneous province in Russia.
Impact-triggered volcanism is yet another possibility.
Starting about 360 million years ago, a drawn-out event eliminated about
70 percent of all marine species from Earth over a span of perhaps 20
million years. Pulses, each lasting 100,000 to 300,000 years, are noted
within the larger date Devonian extinction. Insects, plants, and the
first proto-amphibians were on land by then, though the extinctions
dealt landlubbers a severe setback.
The Ordovician-Silurian extinction, about 440 million years ago,
involved massive glaciations that locked up much of the world's water as
ice and caused sea levels to drop precipitously. The event took its
hardest toll on marine organisms such as shelled brachiopods, eel-like
conodonts, and the trilobites.
IS IT HAPPENING NOW?
Today, many scientists think the evidence indicates A SIXTH MASS
EXTINCTION IS UNDERWAY. The blame for this one, perhaps the fastest in
Earth's history, falls firmly on the shoulders of humans. By the year
2100, human activities such as pollution, land clearing, and OVERfishing
may have driven more than half of the world's MARINE and LAND SPECIES TO
GLOBAL WARMING COULD WIPE OUT HALF OF ALL SPECIES WHERE THEY MEET A FATE
SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE DINOSAURS ... EXTINCTION! / "ICEHOUSE" CONDITIONS
PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY WITH ALL LIFE FORMS WHILE "GREENHOUSE" CONDITIONS
GIVE RISE TO INCREASED EXTINCTION RATES! –
By Alok Jha, The Guardian, Wednesday, October 24, 2007
Rising global temperatures caused by climate change could trigger a huge
extinction of plants and animals, according to a study. Though humans
would probably survive such an event, half of the world's species could
be wiped out.
Scientists at the University of York and the University of Leeds
examined the relationship between climate and biodiversity over the past
520m years -- almost the entire fossil record -- and uncovered an
association between the two for the first time. When the Earth's
temperatures are in a "greenhouse" climate phase, they found that
extinctions rates were relatively high. Conversely, during cooler
"icehouse" conditions, biodiversity increased.
Peter Mayhew, a population ecologist at the University of York and one
of the authors of the research paper, said: "Our results provide the
first clear evidence that global climate may explain substantial
variation in the fossil record in a simple and consistent manner. If our
results hold for current warming -- the magnitude of which is comparable
with the long-term fluctuations in Earth climate -- they suggest that
EXTINCTIONS WILL INCREASE."
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global
temperatures could increase by as much as 6C° by the end of the
century. Dr Mayhew found that of the five mass extinction events in the
Earth's history, four were linked to greenhouse climates where the Earth
was covered in heat-trapping carbon dioxide or methane gases.
This includes the EXTINCTION extinction of the DINOSAURS 65 MYA years
ago, thought to have been caused by the impact of a large asteroid on
the Yucatan peninsula and beneath the Gulf of Mexico.
The largest ever extinction occurred 251 MYA years ago, when 95% of
animal and plant species were killed off. The most likely cause was
floods of lava erupting from the central Atlantic region -- an event
that triggered the opening of the Atlantic ocean.
Dr Mayhew said extinction through global warming was expected to occur
through mismatches between the climates to which organisms are adapted,
and the future distributions of those climates.
MANKIND's SECRETS KEPT IN LUNAR ARK IN CASE EARTH IS DEVASTATED BY AN
ERRANT ASTEROID, COMET or GLOBAL THERMONUCLEAR WAR! – By Maurice
Chittenden, The Sunday Times, Sunday, March 9, 2008
If civilisation is wiped out on Earth, salvation may come from space.
Plans are being drawn up for a "Doomsday Ark" on the moon containing
the essentials of life and civilisation, to be activated in the event of
earth being devastated by a giant ASTEROID or nuclear war. Construction
of a lunar information bank, discussed at a conference in Strasbourg
last month, would provide survivors on Earth with a remote-access
toolkit to rebuild the human race.
A basic version of the ark would contain hard discs holding information
such as DNA sequences and instructions for metal smelting or planting
crops. It would be buried in a vault just under the lunar surface and
transmitters would send the data to heavily protected receivers on
earth. If no receivers survived, the ark would continue transmitting the
information until new ones could be built. The vault could later be
extended to include natural material including microbes, animal embryos
and plant seeds and even cultural relics such as surplus items from
As a first step to discovering whether living organisms could survive,
European Space Agency scientists are hoping to experiment with growing
tulips on the moon within the next decade. According to Bernard Foing,
chief scientist at the agency's research department, the first flowers
-- tulips or arabidopsis, a plant widely used in research -- could be
grown in 2012 or 2015. Tulips are ideal because they can be frozen,
transported long distances and grown with little nourishment. Combined
with algae, an enclosed artificial atmosphere and chemically enhanced
lunar soil, they could form the basis of an ecosystem.
The first experiments would be carried out in transparent biospheres
containing a mix of gases to mimic the earth's atmosphere. Carbon
dioxide given off by the decomposing plants would be mopped up by the
algae, which would generate oxygen through photosynthesis. The databank
would initially be run by robots and linked to earth by radio
transmissions. Scientists hope to put a manned station on the moon
before the end of the century.
The databank would need to be buried under rock to protect it from the
extreme temperatures, radiation and vacuum on the moon. It would be run
partly on solar power. The scientists envisage placing the first
experimental databank on the moon no later than 2020 and it could have a
lifespan of 30 years. The full archive would be launched by 2035. The
information would be held in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian
and Spanish and would be linked by transmitter to 4,000 "Earth
repositories" that would provide shelter, food, a water supply for
BOMBSHELL STUDY: HUMAN BEINGS ALMOST BECAME EXTINCT 71,000 YEARS AGO! /
NEW STUDY SAYS NEAR EXTINCTION THREATENED ALL HUMANITY FROM THE TOBA
VOLCANO ERUPTION and THE ENSUING RAPID, DRAMATIC and CLIMATE CHANGES!
By Randolph E Schmidap, Science Writer, Breitbart.com, Thursday, April
24, 06:15 PM US/Eastern
WASHINGTON (AP) – Human beings may have had a brush with extinction
71,000 years ago, an extensive genetic study suggests. The human
population at that time was reduced to small isolated groups in Africa,
apparently because of drought, according to an analysis released
Thursday. About 3,000 generations ago -- a mere blink in the
evolutionary timescale -- the human population of Earth dwindled to the
point where EVERYONE on the planet could have fitted inside a small
Mounting DNA evidence indicates that the human population was reduced to
perhaps fewer than 10,000 or perhaps 2,000. One study even suggests that
the number of women dropped to just 500 individuals! For centuries, each
new generation of Homo sapiens sapiens could easily have been the LAST.
The Genographic Project study and report was published in the American
Journal of Human Genetics. Previous studies using mitochondrial DNA —
which is passed down through mothers — have traced modern humans to a
single "mitochondrial Eve," who lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago.
The migrations of humans out of Africa to populate the rest of the world
appear to have begun about 60,000 years ago, but little has been known
about humans between Eve and that dispersal.
The new study looks at the mitochondrial DNA of the Khoi and San people
in South Africa which appear to have diverged from other people between
90,000 and 150,000 years ago. Humans separated into small populations
prior to the Stone Age, when they came back together and began to
increase in numbers and spread to other areas.
Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society explorer in residence, said
in a statement: "Tiny bands of early humans, forced apart by harsh
environmental conditions, coming back from the brink to reunite and
populate the world. Truly an EPIC DRAMA, written in our DNA."
WEATHERING THE STORM
Homo sapiens survive because there were three (3) tropical areas of high
rainfall in the world, where the land was able to support larger numbers
of people. ALL were in Africa, where there archaeological evidence for
human expansion after the climate crisis.
Paleontologist Meave Leakey, a Genographic adviser, commented: "Who
would have thought that as recently as 71,000 years ago, extremes of
climate had reduced our population to such small numbers that we were on
THE VERY EDGE OF EXTINCTION." Today, we OWE our very existence to those
few populations that -- through luck or ingenuity -- managed to survive
the GEOLOGICAL DISASTER that killed the rest of our species.
In fact, the reason for the collapse of our species was right under our
feet. Deposits of ash and debris have provided evidence for one of the
most SEVERE NATURAL DISASTERS in the history of life on Earth. It has
been dated by paleoclimatologists and geoscientists to EXACTLY 71,000
The CAUSE of this disaster was the ERUPTION of the TOBA VOLCANO on the
Indonesian island of Sumatra. The largest volcanic explosion of the
previous 2 million years, and one of the biggest of the past 450 million
years, its effects were felt right across the earth. The crater it left
behind measured 60 miles across.
The GENOGRAPHIC PROJECT:
EARTH 2100: IS THIS CENTURY OUR LAST ONE? / SCIENTISTS FROM AROUND THE
GLOBE JOIN ABC NEWS IN A FORUM ON SURVIVING THE 21st CENTURY! –
By Sarah Namias, ABC News, Thursday, June 12, 2008
Are we living in the LAST century of our civilization? Is it possible
that all of our technology, knowledge and wealth cannot save us from
ourselves? Could our society actually be heading towards collapse?
According to many of the world's top scientists, the answer is YES,
unless we take action NOW. This September, in "EARTH 2100," a dramatic
ABC News 2-hour broadcast
the greatest minds across the globe will join together in a countdown to
the year 2100 to tell us what we must do to survive the next century and
what may happen IF we don't.
CLIMATE CHANGE RESOURCE PAGE:
EXTINCTION LEVEL EVENTS:
SMITHSONIAN EARTH – Editor-in-Chief James F Luhr, Thursday, September
2, 2004 ©, ISBN# 078949643, $50.00, 520 pp.
HISTORY: FROM THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION TO THE PRESENT DAY - The
DEFINITIVE VISUAL GUIDE – Editorial Consultant Adam Hart-Davis,
Monday, October 15, 2007 ©, $50.00, 612 pp.
SMITHSONIAN HUMAN: The DEFINITIVE VISUAL GUIDE – Editorial Consultants
Robert Winston and Dr Don E Wilson, Wednesday, January 28, 2004 ©,
ISBN# 0756605202, $50.00, 512 pp.
The Times COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE WORLD: The ULTIMATE WORK OF HISTORICAL
REFERENCE – Editor Richard Overy, 7th Edition, Thursday, September 20,
2007 ©, ISBN# 1435101596, $19.98, 416 pp.
ATLAS OF WORLD HISTORY – Project Director Peter Furtado, Saturday,
September 1, 2001 ©, ISBN# 0760727104, $24.98, 6.28 [extensions]
The TRUTH ABOUT HISTORY – Project Editor Liz Hitchcock, Saturday,
January 6, 2007 ©, ISBN# 076078874X, $12.98, 320 pp. / "Endangered
Species": pp. 163-65
The AMERICAN HERITAGE SCIENCE DICTIONARY – Executive Editor Joseph P
Pickett, Tuesday, January 25, 2005 ©, ISBN# 0618455043, $19.95, 695
The COMPLETE BOOK OF DINOSAURS – By Dougal Dixon, June © 2006, ISBN#
0681375787, $5.99, 256 pp.
The COMPLETE GUIDE TO FOSSILS and FOSSIL-COLLECTING – By Steve Parker,
June © 2007, ISBN# 0681375760, $5.99, 256 pp
DINOSAURS – Consulting Editor Dr Angela Milner, Friday, August 1, 2003
©, ISBN# 0760746346, $6.95, 64 pp.
DINOSAUR ENCYCLOPEDIA: PREHISTORIC LIFE AS YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE
– By Igloo Books, June © 2006, ISBN# 1845614096, $5.99, 128 pp.
DINOSAURS THROUGH TIME – By Rupert Matthews, November © 2007, ISBN#
8860980429, $5.99, 120 pp. / Troodon-Dinosaurid: p. 117
MY FIRST ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DINOSAURS: HUNDREDS OF FACTS, MORE THAN 250
ILLUSTRATIONS! – Consultant Editor Denise Ryan, June © 2008, ISBN#
1740896641, $4.99, 48 pp.
STAR TREK VOYAGER COMPANION – By Paul Ruditis, Thursday, May 1, 2003
©, ISBN# 0743417518, $27.95, 482 pp. / "Distant Origin": pp. 176-80
The NEW YORK TIMES GUIDE TO ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: A DESK REFERENCE FOR
THE CURIOUS MIND – General Editor John W Wright, Completely Revised
and Expanded 2nd Edition, October © 2007, ISBN# 0312376596, $35.00,
The 2008 WORLD ALMANAC and BOOK OF FACTS – Editorial Director C Alan
Joyce, November © 2007, ISBN# 1600570720, $12.99, 1,008 pp.
ALL SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION: Written, researched and compiled by Victor